# Module "Wall"

## Input data

The input is divided into:

- wall dimensions and boundary conditions
- cross section
- design loads and design factors
- stability
- connection wall floor
- fire

### Wall dimensions and boundary conditions

In the current version, only rectangular wall elements without openings can be calculated. The wall is defined via a wall height and wall length.

The bearing of the wall at the top and bottom edges is hinged and the lateral edges are free. These boundary conditions cannot be changed at present.

### Cross section

In this module, the cross section is defined in the direction of the wall length (vertical cross section) and the width of the cross section cannot be changed.

### Design loads and design factors

The loads entered, are at design level.

The following loads can be applied:

- vertical load q
_{d} - horizontal load H
_{d} - load q
_{⊥,d}perpendicular to the wall

Should it be necessary to define an eccentric load application of q_{d}, the input of e_{qd} can be displayed by pressing the button .

For the calculation of the tensile force in the anchor it is necessary to know the proportion of the permanent vertical loads (percentage of g_{d}). Since the permanent vertical load has a relieving effect on the anchor force, this is reduced by multiplication with ξ.

By default, the horizontal load is applied at top of the wall, but can be shifted by entering Δy_{Hd}.

Furthermore, the design factors are specified here.

Design loads and design factors must also be specified for the case of fire.

### Stability

For the verification of stability, the buckling length coefficients β_{ℓk} and in case of fire β_{ℓk,fi} have to be defined. The buckling length is then calculated from the buckling length coefficient and the wall height. The buckling coefficient k_{c}, which is required for the verification, is then automatically determined from the buckling length and the specific cross-section.

The straightness factor β_{c} and the conversion factor to the 5% quantile k_{05} can be changed in the settings.

### Connection wall floor

For the connection in the floor joint, 4 calculation models are currently available:

- Tension, compression discrete & shear continuously
- Compression diskret & tension, shear continuously
- Tension, compression linear & shear continuously
- Tension, compression, shear continuously

The chosen model should take into account the existing fasteners in the floor joint.

Depending on the selected calculation model, different inputs are required.

**Tension, compression discrete & shear continuously**

This model should be selected if tie rods and shear angles are used. Here the load widths for compression and tension are to be entered and an edge distance of the tie rod. The distance of the resulting tensile and compressive force is calculated automatically from this.

**Compression diskret & tension, shear continuously**

This model assumes continuous tensile force transmission, as for example in the case of the connection with the SHERPA CLT connector. Here, only the load application width of the compression zone has to be defined.

**Tension, compression linear & shear continuously**

This model corresponds to the beam theory and should only be used for very narrow wall strips.

**Tension, compression, shear continuously**

This model corresponds to an approximate solution of a plate loaded in plane.

**Spring model**

In this model, tensile and shear spring stiffnesses of discretely arranged fasteners can be entered as well as a distribution width for the respective stress direction. The contact (compressive stress) is taken into account by means of an elastic bedding (input of the bedding factor c in kN/m/m).

### Fire

See Module "CLT-Plate 1D - Continuous beam"

Fire left / right instead of fire above and below.

## Results and output

### Cross section values

The effective stiffnesses of the wall are given in the tab "cross section values" for the full cross section and in case of structural fire design for the charred cross section.

### Summary of the results

In the "Verification" tab, the calculated utilisation rates for the respective design situation are displayed.

The normal and shear stresses are given in the tab "Stresses"

The distribution of the internal forces n_{y} and n_{xy} over the wall length and m_{y} and v_{y} over the wall height are given in the tab "Distribution of internal forces".

Analogously, the internal forces in case of fire.